First IVF usually creates many more embryos are made than are needed. Lucky embryos get implanted into their mother’s womb. Meanwhile others are discarded, donated to research or frozen and never get to finish their lives. Any “surplus” embryos that are frozen are filled with anti-freeze and then slowly cooled down to -196°C, where they are stored in containers of liquid nitrogen. Read that again. These “desperately loved and wanted” offspring are filled with anti-freeze and then frozen for later use.
And if these frozen embryos are eventually “wanted” by their parents, they are thawed out and implanted. But the majority of embryos (upwards of 70%) that are cryopreserved are damaged by the process. Only 30-35% of embryos thaw with no damage. 20-25% do not survive at all. Now read that again. Nearly one in four embryos that are frozen do not survive the process.
And it is not just the freezing and thawing process that can be a problem for an IVF embryo. The laboratory is not the best place to start one’s life. Children conceived with IVF are are 9 times more likely to have the genetic disorder Beckwith-Wiedemann’s Syndrome. Some recent studies are suggesting that people conceived with IVF have different patterns of gene expression that those conceived naturally and so are at greater risk for major disease like obesity and diabetes later in life. And it is estimated that 90% of IVF embryos have chromosomal abnormalities. Think about that statistic this way, IVF practitioners are creating human lives knowing that the majority will have major genetic problems and likely will not survive.
And even if everything goes well, an IVF embryo could still encounter trouble. Increasingly they are sent overseas by Fed Ex (and held by customs) to be implanted and gestated by a woman the parents have never met and cared for by a doctor a half a world away.
Or an embryo maybe implanted into the wrong uterus and then summarily aborted. Or sold over the Internet.
Or embryos can even be lost by the IVF clinic. A recent story of an IVF clinic in the UK “misplacing” a couple’s embryos reminds us of the peril that IVF embryos face everyday:
A fertility clinic in Kent is under investigation after reports that staff may have lost a woman’s embryos. Mrs Alison Austin-Hennessy said she and her husband Michael were informed by a consultant at the private Chaucer Hospital that their embryos had been misplaced….
Chaucer Hospital is run by BMI Healthcare and, according to the Daily Mail, an audit in March 2009 found that two embryos present in 2007 were now ‘gone’. The couple said they were not informed of this, however….
‘I was physically sick. For two or three days, I was ringing them up because I just expected them to be found’, said Mrs Austin-Hennessy.
In an interview with People magazine, Mrs Austin-Hennessy, who is 31 years old, said that she saw a note on the file that read ‘thawed’, leading her to believe that the embryos may have been implanted in another woman.
‘It’s heartbreaking to think another woman may be carrying – or have had – our biological child’, she said.